This is KMMK’s yearly report 2020, on the human rights situation in eastern Kurdistan (Eastern Kurdistan deals with the Kurdish territories under occupation of Iran). This report summarizes key human rights issues on events during November 2020, including executions, detentions, homicide, Police shootings and state terrorism and violence. Data is collected from several sources of KMMK, including direct reports.

This report does not include every issue and event. The absence of an issue is due to resource limitations, restriction to access to the country, the availability of information, and silencing independent voices, civil and human rights groups by the Iranian government.

In November 2020 Iranian government continued its disregard for basic human rights by discrimination, illegal detention of Kurdish citizens, torture and closing off any possibility of organized political activities that are not fully aligned with its propaganda.

By arresting Kurdish citizens, the Iranian government is violating the political, social and civil rights of the Kurdish people. Freedom of expression, the right to a free and independent life and personal security, freedom of expression, the right to political activity, etc. are issues that the Iranian government violates on a daily basis. The actions of the Iranian government against the Kurdish people in Eastern Kurdistan are an objective example of crimes against humanity and discrimination.


In 2020, at least 44 people were executed in East Kurdistan, including political prisoners, those sentenced to retaliation (premeditated murder) and drug prisoners.

The Iranian government has been able to use alternative punishments but has preferred the death penalty. The Iranian government has executed several political prisoners in Eastern Kurdistan on political charges.

State terrorism and violence

This year 14 citizens were murdered by the Iranian government. These people were directly murdered and killed by this government’s armed forces for no reason.

Imprisonment and illegal detention:

According to statistics collected this year, 263 people were arrested. Most of them were civil, political, environmental activists and journalists.

It is worth noting that most of the detainees have been illegally detained without an arrest warrant or court approval. The detainees were arrested without charge only on the decision of the security and secret services.

The detainees were initially denied the right to a lawyer and were interrogated with beatings, torture and disrespect. The courts and judges did not grant prisoners the right to defend themselves during the trial and only upheld the decision of the intelligence and security services.

Kolbar and merchants:

Kolbar (Kurdish: کۆڵبەر‎) is a worker who is employed to carry goods on his/her back across the borders. Most Kolbars live in eastern Kurdistan and they come from the poorest regions in the area. Kolbars are mostly considered illegal and have no insurance, retirement plans and unions.

In 2020, a total of 70 Kolbers and merchants were killed and 176 Kolber and merchants injured. Most of these people were killed and wounded by direct fire from the Iranian forces. In all of these cases, the military was responsible for the death of these Kolbers and merchants. The Iranian government officially supported the killing of these Kolbras by their armed forces and allowed them to shoot. The killing of these Kolbras is indeed a premeditated murder of the government and an objective example of a crime against humanity.

Suicide and murder

 That year, a total of 84 people committed suicide and self-immolation, including 46 women and 38 men. The anti-feminist and reactionary tradition, the anti-feminist laws of the Iranian government, unemployment and poverty are the main causes of suicide and murder.

KMMK encourages Kurdish people in eastern Kurdistan to practice their basic human rights and to report to international institutions and to the world, the discriminations and violations of human rights by Iranian regime.
Kurdistan human rights Association

14 January 2021

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