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Theoretical Perspective

Iran is among Middle Eastern nations that for the first time gave birth to free human societies. It is and it has been a cradle of social struggle for freedom throughout history. In past, the Iranian nations lived side by side in a confederation model and they share a history of the struggle for social freedom. From the beginning of civilization in the region to this date, the Iranian people and Kurds have made history countless times and stood shoulder to shoulder against tyranny and injustice. Confederation of Iranian and Kurdish tribes against Assyrians in ancient history and the Iranian revolution of 1979 are among few examples. Such confederations are formed by the rich and common culture of Iranian nations, a testimony of their undeniable history.

The democratic and leftist struggle is also present throughout Iran’s modern history. Iran is a country with many nations where socialist struggles have been formed by the common people. The Iranian revolution of 1979 was the direct result of people’s movements, and it succeeded merely because people led the struggles. The essence of revolution was justice and equality and people demonstrated with a right stance against the regime at the time. Today, however, with the emergence of Capitalist Modernity, the Iranian regime is under the influence of the ideology. This occurs despite the fact that Iran’s revolution stood against the emergence of Capitalist Modernity in 1979. At the beginning of the Iran-Iraq war, the Iranian regime slowly adapted the nation-state model and distanced itself from its social reality and its people. The starting point of denying the existence and culture of all nations with their variations is rooted in the centralist system of the nation-state. Ironically, Iran is a land where socialism has first emerged in history. It is the cradle of human civilization and progress. Thus, in the current era a democratic system that includes all cultural, political and social aspects of society in order to revive the people’s revolution one more time. Without a doubt, the Iranian women played a central and key role in social struggles. Today, the women’s democratic values must be upheld as the base for social democracy in the country. In order to revive the history and the cohesive struggle among nations of Iran, a democratic nature with humanistic purpose is required.

After 40 years, Iran is now in the transition stage. Destructive economic, political and social crisis caused by the Iranian regime’s politics have led to impulses with consequences that will affect the nations of Iran and Kurdistan. The concentration of power in Iran and monopolising it by the regime, policy of transforming Kurdish, Baloch, Azeri, and Arabic cultures, unfair distribution of wealth throughout the country influenced heavily by politics, dealing with oppositions through force and relying on militarism as the popular option in foreign and domestic diplomacies are all the result of a chaotic mindset that is enabling the eruption of people’s protest in form of a democratic revolution.

This consequently has brought the following threats:

First: unemployment in society, starvation, collapse of morality, poverty, destruction of economic foundation, external tensions, escalation of fascism, captivity of the society, discrimination against women via patriarchy and governmental authoritarianism, destruction of swarm intelligence and drainage of intelligent brains in society, neutralizing youths and their identity, concentration of wealth and usurping the vital vessels of the country in the hand of corps (IRGC), government and its structures, privatization with the aim of destroying the economy.

Second: destruction of the environment by desertification, wasteful dam destructions with political aims and drying rivers and swamps, lack of preservation and revival of jungles, carcinogenic urban outbreak and explosion of the population, expansion of addiction, non-scientific and abnormal education system, forcefully affiliation of the society to the government, inefficient health system.

Third: national oppression against nations of Iran, promotion of one government, one flag, one religion, one country, one language with force and opposing other nations by elimination of cultural mosaic, security approach towards Kurdistan, Baluchistan, Ahwaz, etc. and not resolving the issue of nationalities in Iran, lack of political opening, enlarging the law and governmental law and imposing it on the civil society, cultural and physical suppression and oppression against uprising and revolution of Iranian nations.

In the midst chaos, the third world war in middle east is ongoing between the Capitalist Modernity and Democracy Modernity where Kurdistan is its forefront. The world’s powers are using the Kurdish card to inflict damage on nations such as Kurdistan, Iran, Syria, Turkey, Iraq and other nations in the region. Therefore, the Iranian regime (all parties, including the reformers, fundamentalists and moderates) fight a two front war against both Global Capitalism from one side and the Kurdish nations inside and outside of Iran. After Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria, the threat of war is expected to drag Iran into battleground. The Iranian regime responds to such threats by further suppressing its people, use conservative language, and mobilizing ‘Sepah Quds’ (Army). Currently, the early waves of third world war has impacted Iran in psychologic, economic, and social dimensions of society, paving the way for a military warfare with large scale destruction. To prevent an all-out war, the only option for Iranian regime is to proceed rationally and humanely and accept the popular demand. Similar to Iran, the Eastern Kurdistan also appears to be the final arena for of conflict for world and regional powers. The Iranian nations should not encourage the destructive and exploiting scenarios of domestic and foreign powers. The regime of Iran suppresses and deceives the mass, and reformers are only seeking negotiations for power with the regime in high ranks, paying little to no attention to people’s uprising. European and American powers are seeking to turn Iran into another Syria in order to take over the rich energy fields in Iran. Furthermore, the opposition (left wing and right wing) both are seeking to overthrow the regime without any clear future plans. All these factors annihilate the potential for people’s uprising. People, from all ages feel the lack of safety in the society. World powers determine the future of nations through psychological and military pressure. Subjects such as ‘Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action’ and ‘Iranian Missile Program’ are have little to no relation to social freedom movements but rather they are political tools between Iran and powers to flex in arms race that could initiate or prevent a war. Therefore, social uprisings should not be belittled or linked to such subjects. In this war, Kurdistan is under the threat of cultural genocide and it has become a battleground of the west and regional conservative governments. The Kurdish nation is upraising towards realization of a democratic and autonomous nation, standing beside other Iranian nations in this spring of national revolution. Kurdish freedom movement is seeking a radical change and a long-lasting solution, whereas the Iranian authority, the oppositions and the world powers have no democratic project that is free of war and destruction. World powers’ options are simply applying economic sanctions and military intervention. The consequences of these options mainly increase the threats for civil society. Classic and none radical opposition are merely seeking for their share from Iran’s nation-state, therefore they neither represent the people nor are they able to take radical criticisms.

People’s democratic uprising

A – Nations: In order to resolve crises of Iran and Kurdistan, there is a need for both internal and external projects, but neither society nor a true liberation movement should accept any fruitless projects. Internal and external centralism and non-democratic approaches should not be endorsed. In the process of change in Iran, the international factor, the current regime of Iran and most importantly, factor of nations are necessary and important, yet the popular politics and struggle must have the highest priority. The current government depicts itself as moderate wing and attempts to show itself as innocent in comparison to the fundamental right wing regime, but in reality it is deterring the people’s uprising. Multiple crises in the recent years have created a popular potential for a finding a democratic solution, however, the current moderate government that serves the system’s fundamentalists attempted to curb it. An autonomous and democratic nation is a fundamental and unavoidable start for the people of Iran. Democracy based on the society and democracy of nations are acceptable only in the form of local democracy.

B – Peoples’ uprising (A Practical Step Towards Democratization): National uprisings of December 2017 are still ongoing in the form of strikes and protests of corporation, communities, workers, women and youths. It is an important democratic policy and struggle that continued from decades of struggles. The people realized that the mentality of government and opposition as the root of the problem; therefore, people seek to revive society by returning to its true identity. There is no domestic or foreign power that is capable of restraining the social uprising. This uprising is the rise of a common and free mentality among Kurdish, Persian, Baloch, Azeri, Arab, etc. nations. The civic organizations, women and youths are the true and active vanguards of this struggle.

In order to achieve victory in this uprising, there must be a radical struggle against a ruling regime that denies the truth and no one (people, opposition, the freedom movement and even international supporters) should compromise with such a government. If the current system and regime of Iran express its readiness to accept the popular demands and changes, there should not be any attempt to overthrowing the regime in exchange inferior goals such as power, on the other hand, in case of rejection of the people’s demands, there must be a practical and general struggle against the regime. Crises are in a very critical level, the society has become politically sensitive and aware, hence the community must collaborate with one another and act as a resistance organization that has a right purpose and true mentality throughout the struggle. The people choice must be radical because neither Iranian system nor the opposition can keep up the pressure on public as before. Only people on the streets can solve the social-political crises and issues. Even if it is supposed to be a political opening to be created, it is only possible by the society.

Rejection or acceptance of restoration of rights and freedom by the Iranian government is depending on the practical presence of nations on street. Neither Iranian government has the power to escape nor do people have the opportunity to run from their revolution duty because the main factor of democratic changes in Iran and Kurdistan are the nations themselves, therefore, neither limited popular protests are enough nor the demagogical confessions of Iranian government. Once again, the Iranian government and system consider themselves as a center of everything to solve the economic crises just like the past, also for solving the social and political crises, they are trying to connect the society to themselves and divert it from uprising. It is obvious based on the mentioned principles, the uprising of the December 2017 in Iran and Kurdistan was not transient, rather it is continuing in different forms. Proposing demagogical issues like citizen rights or referendum by the current government is more insignificant and different from uprising, popular democratic struggle and even the kind of referendum people demanding and perhaps it is to divert the uprisings from its true path. The people’s radical uprising must continue until it achieves the result even if the system accepts is for changes. The system and opposition sides should not try to restrain people by hypocrisy and compromise.

It might be possible to reach a democratic change a without the need to rely on foreign governments and powers. If the authority refuse to fulfill the rightful demands of the people, then it is upon the people to strive in democratizing their nation. Thus, destructive and un-resourceful movements do not have any rights in imposing themselves on people. This is an ethical warning in line with democratic politics. People do not beg for democracy from the state, but they establish it through hard work and suffering.

C – The People’s Truth Finding Committee: In order to resolve the country’s internal issues through peaceful mean, the society must seek to compel the state and international actors to recognize the people’s truth finding committee. Therefore, it is the responsibility of people to establish and direct the committees that is responsible to resolve the political, economic, and military issues between the state and society. The responsibility of these committees is to seek a democratic approach to crisis and preventing the foreign military intervention that could turn Iran into another Syria. Topics such as ‘Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action’ and ‘Terrorism’ are made by the countries and are only concern to the states, without any relevance to the society. Foreign interventions threaten the popular struggles similar to the case in Syria.

D – Democratic Civil Organizations: In this movements, democratic civil organizations are considered as part of the popular opposition. As part of the civil society, such organizations should not agree to little achievements, nor should they be satisfied with minor demands from the government mainly because the civil organizations are the main essence in the nation, who are capable, influential and self-managed entity who do not seek nor require to demand from the state. Such a society is not a threat, rather, a politically democratic society is an opportunity. A society that is connected to the government is an artificial community. Unity of the mass in the streets as well as the protests and strikes are the democratic self-management of society in practice. The ongoing struggles in Iran is the quest of people for achieving democratic modernity against the internal and external capitalism modernity. The people’s movement in Iran stands as the third force against both the Iranian regime, and the modern global capitalism. The movement will not side with neither of those and will remain as a democratic and self-managing entity. Siding with Iran or global capitalism will result in becoming another Syria, Iraq or Afghanistan. Therefore, the only sensible approach is the self-management by nations of Iran, as well as the Kurdish nation. Nationalism, religionism, and establishing business on religion can only destroy the nations and religions. Self-Reliance and intellectual self-sufficiency will definitely save the society from becoming a frequent victim in diversionary issues such as The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), sanctions, missile program, and energy and power competition.

E – Women: Women who had an important role in the uprising of January 2018, are the primary actors in the society’s democratic and autonomous struggles. The level of system’s misogynistic and anti-woman policies has reached a breaking point and it goes on to say that women’s freedom has come to fruition from the grasp of domestic and foreign retrospective cultures and it is forming itself based on the community itself. in the and anti-women policies of the system have now reach the level of explosion and women’s freedom has come to fruition from the grip of domestic and foreign backward cultures and has been founded by society itself. The history of revolutions in Iran has proven the extraordinary strength of women, and the notion of a democratic and free future in Iran is not possible without women’s freedom.

F – Youth: After women, the main victims of the ruling system are the Youth. In reality youth are the driving force of struggles and uprising against crises. No longer will they be deceived by dishonest movements who campaign for overthrowing the regime yet have no project or roadmap. In the political, economic, health, education solution and in the development of democracy, youth are the main key in the society and they must never agree to implement the destructive internal and external prescriptions and scenarios.

KODAR and PJAK’s resolution

The East Kurdistan Democratic and Free Society (KODAR) as a part of the uprising wave in Iran and Kurdistan, is vigilantly aware of the miserable situation of society, and the opportunities and threats against Iran and Kurdistan. We are a system whose body is democratic confederation and whose spirit is the democratic nation.  Democratic autonomy and local democracy is compatible in this system. KODAR struggles for all nations, particularly for the nations of Iran and East Kurdistan. It consists of a system that implements a war prevention project. In this regard, KODAR believes that despite acknowledgement on the issue of nations and in particular the Kurdish question by Iranian regime, the issues are still not addressed adequately, and therefore KODAR demands more practical measures to be taken by the regime. If the regime fails to fulfill the rightful demands, KODAR has the capability for campaigning a struggle as it does not require to request anything from states, systems or political movements. PJAK, as the forefront for the practical realization of democratic politics in the KODAR system, is prepared for any democratic solution in line with the liberation of Iranian and East Kurdistan nations. KODAR and PJAK are ready to peacefully resolve the issue of Kurds and nations in Iran within the framework of democratic nation and democratic autonomy project and invite Iranian regime for a political opening and discussion.

1. KODAR’s Priority: Society

Any compromise on freedom, democracy and society is a betrayal to the resistance. The main focus of any resistance is the society. Even KODAR is not offering its project merely to the government, but it is rather proposing the correct path and its outlook for struggle to the society and peoples. First priority for solution is organizing the society and peoples, later priority will be given to projects for solving domestic and international systems if they have a peaceful objective. Any project that does not put the nations as the main priority will be seen as an effort to deflect the struggle. The society have twelve fundamental issues, which are following: state and power, politics and ethics, mind-set, economy, industrialism, the environment, family issues, woman, population and gender, urbanization, class and bureaucracy, education and health, militarism, peace and democracy which is common for Iran, Kurdistan and the world, and recognizes and emphasizes on peacefully domestic, foreign and cultural projects.

Cultural Islam is contrast to nation-state Islam and in Iranian society cultural Islam has always had its own special values. Cultural Islam values are in line with the community oriented values of KODAR which is founded on the principles of freedom and local democracy.

2. KODAR’s Democratic Nation Project

The main factors of our bloody century are military campaign of a nation to establish its own government and a government that tries to create a nation. A comprehensive definition of nation is the one that relates to mentality, awareness and belief. In this situation, a democratic nation consists of a community of people who share the same worldview. Therefore, in such a nation, topics such as language, religion, culture, market, history and political boundaries are not determinative factors but are iconic that play a role in unity. On this basis, the common world mentality has a vital role. Awareness regarding freedom and correlation is the base of everything. A common mentality requires a body. In a democratic nation the democratic self-management is based on freedom and correlation, therefore it is the body of mentality. The societies that govern themselves based on a free will and common mentality, have achieved their democratic autonomy. Political authority of people’s management system is the democratic autonomous management which KODAR is the Kurdish share of this model. The most vital point is, the democratic nation includes the nine dimensions: cultural, political, economic, social, legal, diplomatic, democratic commune and free individual-citizen, common free life and self-defense.

KODAR delivers the establishment of democratic nation as a project with democratic autonomous and local democracy structures and reacts according to the behavior of the current regime of Iran and international community towards the project. History has proven that injustice and oppression against Iranian nation as well as Kurdish nation and discriminatory treatment under the security banner is not the solution. KODAR is seeking a democratic solution without conflict, however KODAR does not allow the opponent to devalue an international issue such as Kurdish question, by giving false promises and obscure short statements. The project of Democratic and Autonomous Nation seeks Freedom and co-existence of nations and does not aim to establish power, divide land, impose the superiority of a flag, religion, nationality or race. KODAR considers the importance of freedom of women equivalent of the entire democratic revolution and society. Women, youths and ecology (the environment) are three essential pillars of the revolution and any project without these three will be considered classic, retrogressive and non-reformist by KODAR.

3. KODAR and Campaigning Stance

Realization of local democracy and liberalism based on democratic confederation is KODAR’s goal, therefore, KODAR does not recognize and accept Iran’s current system. KODAR’s campaign will not be affected by the domineering will of others. The Horizon of KODAR’s campaign is the nation and they will not be traded in a diplomatic settlement, nor will they be sacrificed in a war in vain. In case of rejection from the regime, the option of self-defense and democratic actions is part of the basic principles and inevitable right. if the government and the ruling system of Iran refused to resolve the issues peacefully, the society itself must engage and democratize the country by establishing a democratic autonomous system. Therefore, the regime must be aware that the nation of Iran is capable of reaching a solution without regime’s involvement. KODAR is a system and above the structure of a party, and its project is for all nations, including the Iranian and Kurdish nations.

4. KODAR’s Approach for the Kurdish Cause

Kurds have no other option but to put the opportunity “approaching freedom” to use. Neither the Iranian regime has the power to escape its retrogressive situation, nor USA and western block have the power to ignore Kurds and their decisive role. Kurds are capable and have the potential in realization of Democratic Modernity that is opposite of Capitalist Modernity and KODAR will not deprive any of the Kurdish civic organizations, or political parties. KODAR adheres to the democratic demands of the society; therefore, it will not accept divisive projects which reduces the democratic participation of people, yet fully supports the projects that put forward resolutions.

KODAR prefers fundamental changes instead of restoration (pretentious change), moderation, reformation and fundamentalism. KODAR’s policies has not decayed by the passage of time as its forecasts and its positions were correct and futuristic. From KODAR’s perspective, both national unity of Kurds and unity of Iranian nations to solve acute historical issues demand a project, philosophy and common mentality. Therefore, KODAR neither will be opinionated in Iran and East Kurdistan nor does it accept from any party to impose their opinion by force. The origin of KODAR’s democratic partnership is for both Kurdish and Iranian parties. In this regard, KODAR considers civic organizations as part of the opposition, contemplates their role and importance equivalent to political parties, and urge them to participate in the democratic national unity and process of solving issues. KODAR considers civic organizations as a basis of confederation of the civil society against governmental structures.

Since the self-defense forces are merely for self-defense purpose and not aggression, KODAR believes that it will be a transparent force to serve the project of democratization in Iran and East Kurdistan.

5. The Practical Dimensions of the Democratic Approach

In order to take practical steps and political opening to resolve the issues of Iran and Kurdistan, KODAR unveils a dimension in a transparent manner, without which it is impossible for the society, Iran and international community to find a resolution. The only true solutions stand in democracy and democratization of Iran, democratization of constitution and transitioning from ‘nation’ to ‘democratic nation’. KODAR declares its readiness to resolve issues peacefully within the framework of a state that accepts democracy, and its model maintains the political and cultural plurality of Iran.

The following practical steps are guarantees the democratization process:

  1. Legal dimension: By law, a condition should be provided that allows steps are taken in order to transform the current constitution into a democratic constitution which guarantees the rights of nations, religions, women and other minorities. In addition, individual and collective rights are indisputable in societies since any disruption of such rights is a tool for repression and exploitation; therefore, there must be a clear definition and coordination in democratic constitution when it comes to individual and collective rights.
  2. Native-Country dimension: The homeland and its integrity must be defined in a way that it does not belong solely to a singular religious or ethnic group. The homeland must belong to all religions and ethnic community, and democratic citizens are the free individuals. Furthermore, in terms of national and indigenous dimensions, the common homeland consisting of the place of ecology (the environment), economic and democratic life must be available to all the citizens equally, regardless of the diversity and they should be able to freely practice in politics and management of their country.
  3. Social dimension: Society has vital and essential needs, such as “education, health, sports, culture and law”. In these areas, society falls in a relationship and confrontation with the system which determines that the current institutions of the state are ineffective; Language and ethnicity are not obstructive in the development of education, health, sports, culture, and law. By extending the Kurdish language, the Kurds expand their education and culture institutions within the framework of the democratic nation. The people of Iran and the Kurds are part of the cultural integrity of Iran and Kurdistan, which without them this integrity is incomplete; therefore, the social dimension of this question must be resolved through practical steps.
  4. Women’s Freedom dimension: In Iran women are target of a large scale discrimination in the fields of law, politics, economy and management. The root of these discrimination is the masculine mentality of the society and state. The realization of democracy is impossible without eliminating misogynistic discriminations. The rights and freedoms of women must be guaranteed by law, including the freedom to establish and organize, and freedom to expression their demands. In essence, attempts of resolving other issues is pointless without finding a resolution to question of women.
  5. Security dimension: This dimension affects all the previous dimensions in terms of resolution, determination of rules and decision makings. Kurds are facing the risk of extermination yet they are still deprived of freedom under the context of social security. It is necessary for Kurds to be legally safeguarded to maintain their existence, though this guarantee may not be sufficient. If the Kurdish problem is agreed to be resolved, Iran’s military forces must be fundamentally transformed. This does not mean that there is no requirement for legitimate defense force. An indigenous and legitimate force for maintaining national and native social security that guarantees the democratization in Iran and Kurdistan is an opportunity for coexistence and not a threat.
  6. Economical dimension: KODAR is protecting society and environment against monopoly destructions and elite dominations with a communal economy. According to KODAR, expanding the culture of convergent labor in order to fulfill the needs as the true approach to economy. KODAR is against commodity fetishism and emphasizes on essential economical relationships in the society instead of cupidity. KODAR rejects discrimination against deprived regions and accentuates the justly distribution of wealth and resources.
  7. Environment dimension: industrialism, monopolistic capitalism and profit-driven exploitation of natural resources caused irrecoverable disaster on environment. Wasteful dam construction, desertification of the land, destruction of natural water and forest resources require a democratic struggle with the centrality of social-governmental decision based on ethical approach. In this regard, KODAR’s paradigm has been democratic and ecological, and demands a structural evolution in this field.
  8. Diplomatic dimension: KODAR is an excellent model in presentation of a democratic approach in Iran. It is impossible to resolve the issues in Iran without taking ethnical and national differences into consideration. For decades, the state depicted Kurds and Kurdistan as a separatist community in a negative propaganda, but in contrary, KODAR is a system that attempts to establish and converge all the Kurds, Balochis, Arabs, Turks (Azeris), Persians etc. without changing the borders, relying on conflict or imposing its own strategies. The KODAR’s solution model is not against governments, but rather it is a democratic confederation and union of civil society that focuses on settling issues, which government’s diplomatic actions alone cannot resolve.


To resolve the society issues, the social management should differentiate between authoritarian and democratic self-governing. Democratic management and hegemonic power are two different managerial paradigms. As a final tool, power-oriented management promotes individualism in ideology and privatization in economic that is the last stage of the crisis. KODAR’s democratic nation paradigm is relying on equality based on differences and social liberation. Each citizen and member of democratic nation has three duties: 1. Intellectual duties. 2. Moral duties. 3. Political duties. Therefore, she/he would resolve the twelve issues of the society by relying on these three duties. Aside from these, changing the constitution law of Iran to a democratic law is vital. The constitution law must frankly defines Iran as a land of all nations, genders, religions and identities, and have executive-practical guarantee. The totalitarian paternalism approaches of Iranian regime is not acceptable anymore. The lead is belong to Iranian nations and the right of practical actions is reserved for them. The solution will be realized only with centrality of society and accepting its demands.

The Free and Democratic Society of East Kurdistan (KODAR) is kind of creating nation that is led by various nations segments and intellectual spectrums. The issue of KODAR with the current nation-state ruler is the issue of legalization and recognition. Despite of legal activities and democratic organization, which are KODAR’s priority, but rejection of this matter from the Iran’s nation-state regime, opens the path for kind of authority and dual management in Kurdistan which results in tensions and conflicts. If popular demands that mentioned in this project, legalization and recognition do not get a positive response from the Iranian government and in contrary Iranian government keep resorting to denial, destruction and inhuman strategies, it is obvious that KODAR also for implementation of its authority and management unilaterally will not refrain any form of struggle.

Free and Democratic Society of East Kurdistan (KODAR) and Free Life Party of Kurdistan (PJAK)